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Information about Sorghum Genome

The homozygous genotype BTx623 of Sorghum bicolor was sequenced in 2009 by Paterson, et al. and taken as the reference genome in our database. You may read the Abstract in PubMed, or the Full Paper which is freely accessible in Nature. You may also download the PDF file of this paper.

In the following years, new sequence data were added, new assemblies were built, and new annotations were made. The current release (V2.1) of the sorghum genome can be found at the US Joint Genome Institute JGI under the Phtozome genome portal.

Here are some facts about the sorghum reference genome.

  • Genome size: ~727Mb
  • Number of chromosomes: 10 (2n=20)
  • Number of protein-coding genes: ~33,000 (Average length: 2,856bp)
  • Number of protein-coding transcripts: ~39,500 (Average length: 1426bp)
  • Percentage of retrotransposons: ~54.5%
  • Percentage of DNA transposons: ~7.5%

Sorghum and rice belong to the same grass family (Poaceae or Gramineae). The 10 sorghum chromosomes share some synteny with the 12 rice chromosomes, such as the two diagonal lines in the box between sorghum chromosome 1 and rice chromosome 3 showing in the dotplot of sorghum and rice.

Dot plot

Sequence alignment among 10 sorghum chromosomes show regional similarity between some chromosomes, for example, chromosome 3 and 9 in the dot plot picture.

Dot plot

Sorghum shares 9503 gene families with rice, arabidopsis and poplar. There are 3983 gene families common to sorghum and rice. And 1153 gene families are specific in sorghum.

gene family

Recently, dozens of sorghum accessions including grain sorghum and sweet sorghum have been re-sequenced, such as:

We identified the SNPs from these sorghum accessions using a computational pipeline and constructed this database.